‘The Open Door’: A Classic Revisited

This post celebrates and complements our first group read of 2018 in the Middle East North Africa Lit group on Goodreads.com: الباب المفتوح / The Open Door by Latifa al-Zayyat! This is one of the most enjoyable feminist classics in all of Arabic literature, as far as I’m concerned. As a historical novel, it transports us to a time when Cairo was part of the British empire, and Egyptians were ready for a change! The protagonist, a young woman, comes of age in this society. We accompany her through all her discoveries – her newfound nationalism and political consciousness, her developing sexuality and womanhood / feminist consciousness, and her search for a path all her own.

AUC Press re-issued the English translation of The Open Door by Marilyn Booth in 2017. See here for a generous free excerpt and more information.

Here is a bilingual site dedicated to Latifa al-Zayyat’s work.

See our moderator Marcia Lynx Qualey’s article here on the 2015 Google Doodle for Latifa al-Zayyat.


The Open Door‘ is also a classic film from the sixties generation, based on the eponymous feminist novel by Latifa Zayyat. If you want a black-and-white cinematic experience, from the days of the silver screen, that envisions independence for Egypt and for individuals, then this is your movie!

In this recent interview, a professor at Brown University discusses teaching The Open Door in her class, Women’s Writing in the Arab World.

Finally, if you want to continue reading more by Latifa Zayyat, her short story “The Narrow Path” is available in English translation by Salwa Jabsheh and Christopher Tingley on pages 790-800 of Modern Arabic Fiction: An Anthology (2008), edited by Salma Khadra Jayyusi.

Adventure!

Here’s to travel, expanding one’s horizons, and taking on new challenges!

My friend Barbara Romaine recently published a series of poems here, including the following celebration of roaming (Arabic here).

Wanderlust

by al-Imam al-Shafiʿi (d. 820), translated by Barbara Romaine

To a mind wise and cultured, what ease in a place?
Pull up stakes, leave your country, and roam!
Those you meet on your travels will make up the loss
Of those left behind you at home.

Water by its own stillness made foul have I seen;
It can only stay sweet when it flows.
There’s no prey for the lion that ventures not forth;
No mark for arrows stuck in bows.

Should the sun in its heavenly orbit stop short,
One and all we would tire of its blaze;
If the moon never set but stood still in the sky,
It would draw not the eye’s eager gaze.

Much like scattered dust lie the earth’s lodes of ore;
Reeds to burn grow in numbers untold.
The latter remove, and you’ll want it; the former,
When rare, is no less than pure gold.



Teaser

Here is a tiny teaser excerpt from my Work in Progress translation of the epic Sirat al-Amira Dhat al-Himma/سيرة الأميرة ذات الهمة from Arabic to English. (This translation project is funded by a grant from the NEA.) Note: I’m playing with the name of the main character. She was born Fatima, but is known as Dhat al-Himma in Arabic. It’s a mouthful in English, so I’m calling her Valor for now. Let me know if you have opinions about this!

 

For a full year, the Fiend of Bani Tayy conducted raids on the lands of Bani Kilab. Valor came and went with no trace, hunting on their lands, until one day she raided a clan allied to Bani Kilab (by her parents’ marriage, unbeknownst to her). Some of the people who had been tending the livestock came to inform Mazlum, and he called out to his men to make haste. They lept up like ferocious lions, seized swords and spears, and set out. Mazlum was in the lead, wearing iron armor and chain mail. Meanwhile, Valor had just reached a stretch of flat, unprotected land when she heard horses neighing, bridles clattering, blades hissing, and warriors whooping in pursuit. Mazlum shouted, “You bastard! No matter which sky shades you or which bit of earth upholds you, you are going down!”

“Shit!” Valor hefted the spear in her hand, and called to Marzuq, “Cover my back, brother!” She left the men who rode with her to look after the herds as she raced toward her pursuers. She saw that Mazlum was in the lead, and he saw her approaching and knew her to be the Fiend of Bani Tayy.

Image Source

Arabic Epics

As I talk with people about my current translation project, more and more people want to know about Arabic epics. These epics (Arabic: سيرة / sira) are long adventure tales that recount the exploits of a group of heroic characters and villains. Siras draw on historical events, although they are not to be considered conventional accounts of history. Peter Heath* has observed that heroic cycles cover almost all of recorded pre-Islamic and Islamic history:

  • Early Persian history (Sīrat Fīrūz Shāh)
  • Alexander the Great (Sīrat Iskandar)
  • The Sassanid dynasty (Story of Bahrām Gūr)
  • Pre-Islamic South Arabian history (Sīrat al-Malik Sayf Ben Dhī Yazan)
  • Pre-Islamic North Arabian history (Sīrat ‘Antar and the Story of al-Zīr Sālim)
  • Early Islamic history (Sīrat Amīr Ḥamza)
  • Tribal feuds and holy wars of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates (Sīrat al-Amīra Dhāt al-Himma, Ghazwat al-Arqaṭ, Al-Badr-Nār, Sīrat ‘Alī al-Zaybaq, Sīrat Sayf al-Tījān)
  • Conquests of North Africa (Sīrat Banī Hilāl) (this is my own addition to the list)
  • Fatimid and Mamluk history (Sīrat al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allah and Sīrat al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Baybars)

These epics are the product of oral storytelling traditions. Today they are available in printed editions in Arabic. There are not many translated into English. Probably the most comprehensive English version is the scholarly The Arabian Epic by M.C. Lyons (2 volumes). The most accessible is The Adventures of Sayf ben Dhi Yazan by Lena Jayyusi. In my current translation project, I am beginning to produce a similar edition of Sirat al-Amira Dhat al-Himma. My primary source text is the most common printed edition (ed. Maqanibi et al., published by Al-Maktaba al-Sha’biyya, Beirut 1980). It consists of seven volumes, and each volume is about one thousand pages long. The length is one reason why no one has attempted to provide an English edition of this epic before. However, fortunately the genre of epic includes the repetition of clichés and a limited number of types of scenes. I would like to prepare a rendition of selected episodes, chosen for their importance to the overall storyline and for their appeal to a general audience. I hope that it will appeal to a broad audience, as it features fight scenes, love scenes, warrior women, and vibrant storytelling.

* See Peter Heath, The Thirsty Sword: Sīrat ‘Antar and the Arabic Popular Epic (Salt Lake City: U of Utah, 1996) xv.

Quotes

Some Favorite Quotations in Arabic Literature

※ more favorite quotations welcome ※

On art, literature, and writing

Horses, night, and the desert know me

And the sword, the spear, paper, and the pen

– a famous line of poetry by the poet Al-Mutanabbi (known for his bragging!) from 10th century Baghdad

On education

What I want is knowledge of how things really are,

so must I not [first] try to find out what knowledge really is?

– from المُنْقِذ من الضلال / Deliverance from Error, by Al-Ghazali, a philosopher of 11th century Baghdad and the Arab empire

Knowledge is in the head
Not in the notebook
– Arab proverb

The king’s adviser had two daughters: the elder named Shahrazad, and the younger named Dunyazad. The eldest had read the great books, history, the ancient sagas of kings, and tales of past nations. It was said that she had collected a thousand books on the history of great peoples, and on the chief rulers and poets. She said to her father: Why do I see you upset, carrying worries and sadness? As it is said: “Tell the one who carries worries that worries don’t last forever. Just as happiness ends, so worries end also.” – from the opening story of الف ليلة وليلة / The One Thousand and One Nights in the Arabic Mohsen Mahdi edition, transcribed from a 14th century manuscript

On life

If an idiot wants to do you harm, disregard him

and leave it to time to teach him his lesson

And avoid dirty injustice, for when a mountain seeks to harm

another mountain, the aggressor will be ruined.

– Poetry in the Story of Jawdar, One Thousand and One Nights Mohsen Mahdi edition of 14th century manuscript

“There are two blessings which many people lose: good health and free time.”

– a saying of the prophet Muhammad, narrated by Ibn Abbas and recorded by Bukhari, a 9th century scholar (see Kitab al-Raqaq in Sahih al-Bukhari)

 On displacement

la anta anta wala diyaru diyaru

You are not you, and home is not home

– opening words in a poem by Abu Tammam

On love

You are the completion of my happiness

When you approach, good news alights, O Light of My Eyes

– a line of Moroccan malhun poetry (the subject of my dissertation)

On religion and spirituality

I fell in love; Is there anything wrong with love?
Love did not muddle my head
What did I and the others do wrong? How they revile me!
My religion is my affair and other people’s religion is theirs.

– by Abu Nuwas (Iraq c. 756-810) from Diwan Abi Nuwas al-Hasan ibn Hani, ed. Ahmad Abd al-Majid al-Ghazzali (Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-‘Arabi, 1966): 265

On travel

lisan jadid, insan jadid

New language, new person.

– An Arab proverb on the effects of language learning

NEA Grant Recipient!

Melanie A. Magidow Receives NEA Literature Translation Fellowship

Fellowship will support the translation into English
of The Adventures of Dhat al-Himma

(the Arabic epic Sirat al-amira Dhat al-Himma)

 

الأميرة-ذات-الهمة

Washington, DC — Today, the National Endowment for the Arts announced that Melanie Magidow has been recommended for an NEA Literature Translation Fellowship of $12,500. Magidow is one of 23 recommended fellows for 2017. In total, the NEA is recommending $325,000 in grants this round to support the new translation of fiction, creative nonfiction, and poetry from 13 different languages into English.

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“Translating a work of literature takes not only deep knowledge of another language, but also skill, artistry, and dedication,” said NEA Chairman Jane Chu. “I am proud of the NEA’s long commitment to supporting literary translation. This art form plays an important role in providing Americans with a truly unique insight into other cultures as well as access to some of our world’s greatest writers.”

Since 1981, the NEA has awarded 433 fellowships to 383 translators, with translations representing 67 languages and 81 countries. For the complete list of FY 2017 NEA Literature Translation Fellows, visit the NEA’s website at arts.gov.

Established by Congress in 1965, the NEA is the independent federal agency whose funding and support gives Americans the opportunity to participate in the arts, exercise their imaginations, and develop their creative capacities. Through partnerships with state arts agencies, local leaders, other federal agencies, and the philanthropic sector, the NEA supports arts learning, affirms and celebrates America’s rich and diverse cultural heritage, and extends its work to promote equal access to the arts in every community across America. For more information, visit the NEA at arts.gov.

The announcement on the NEA site is here.

Arabic Programs

Here is my ongoing list of reputable Arabic programs for study outside of college classrooms (summer study, independent study). Please feel free to comment if you have experience with these or other programs that should be listed.

Egypt (Unfortunately, political unrest may render Egypt a poor choice for study abroad this year. Syria is not currently listed for the same reason. May Egyptians and Syrians be granted more political stability and civil rights.)

  1. Alexandria American Councils for International Education Arabic Overseas – This option provides intermediate level instruction. For U.S. or Canadian residents.
  2. Cairo

Jordan

Lebanon

  1. American University of Beirut (AUB)
  2. Beirut ALPS Beirut

Morocco

  1. Meknes AALIM
  2. Rabat

Tunisia

USA

  • California: Middlebury Language School – This option is best for beginner to advanced students who want to focus on Modern Standard Arabic.
  • Maryland: Here is another option for beginner to advanced students who want to learn spoken Arabic alongside standard Arabic, and who are unable to study abroad in the summer.
  • Texas: UT Austin provides another option for beginner to advanced students (qualified high school and college students) to study Arabic in the summer without traveling out of the United States.
  • Wisconsin: Here is a program of which I would appreciate any news and reviews.

Arabic Teaching & Studying

Resources for Arabic Language Teaching & Studying

Downloadable Handout for Why Study Arabic ?

Arabic Language Resources by Dialect ~ مصادر بالعربي

  • I. Egyptian ~ مصري – MelodyTV
  • II. North African ~ دارجة – Hespress News
  • III. Levantine ~ شامي
  • IV. Gulf ~ خليجي – Qatar TV

Arts of the Arab World III: Print Culture

EgyptianPreacherWomanPhoto of Magda Amer from BBC

 

 

 

 

 

AlJaami3AlKabiirMaknasManus20

Resources for Arabic Literature & Culture

Note: Manuscript photo from l-Jaami‘ l-Kbiir of Meknes, Morocco.

For more on the role of literature in Arab society see here.

For SciFi, see here.

For Moroccan literature in English, see here.

Note: Manuscript painting of a library in Basra

in Al-Maqamat by Al-Hariri (1054-1122),

copied and painted at al-Wasili in Baghdad (1236).

Manuscript held in Paris, BnF.